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If the water flows over In the original the rod is at e, the the murdjikdl, a triangle of wood, at kdla, weight. 1 6) are placed on it, L x and L 2 , one above the other. and s 2 which ai height distance from one another, as is necessary in making a canal for example, one looks horizontally from s t with a apparatus which is at a height A from the ground to a vertical rod at s 2 and ascertains the height A, at which the point observed is above the ground. We read of the nay in the Aghdni (ix, 71), but we cannot be sure whether it was a flute or a reed-pipe. Qurra's Buch uber die ebenen Sonnenuhren, in Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, Astronomie und Physik, Abt. Deverdun, Marrakech des ines a 1912, Rabat 1959, 251).
The gutter is filled with water and some light ashes are scattered on it. If this comes to rest in the hollow, the gnomon is perpendicular. The gnomon is moved backwards and forwards (turned about on its foot: mukbal wa-mudbar); its shadow must only move so far on the level surface, on which it stands, as is in keeping with the movement of the sun during the turning (Ibn Yunus, see below). A circle is described at the foot of the rod and a pair of compasses used to test whether the distance of the top of the gnomon is the same from all points of the circle. Ibn Slna drills a small hole through the gnomon parallel to its base, puts it in a vessel with a horizontal bottom which is filled with muddy water and examines whether the surface exactly coincides with the level of the hole. In order to examine whether a level surface is standing exactly perpendicular, two exactly equal parallelepipedal blocks of wood (fig. Whilst the diminutive kasiba (kusayba) sometimes oc curs in reference to a small flute, shabbdba and shabdb (s/shabba "to grow up") were the more general terms used in c Irak (Ikhwan al-Safa', i, 97), Egypt (al- Maknz T, i, 136), Spain (al-Shalahl, Voc. In Persia, the small flute was called the pisha (Kanz al-tuhaf), hence the Balkan piscoiu and pisak. In Marrakech, the same title was borne, under the Almohads, by the head of a kind of guild of physi- ' »s in the town (see G.
THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM NEW EDITION PREPARED BY A NUMBER OF LEADING ORIENTALISTS EDITED BY C. Here/; VM forms part of the 'ddal or community customs which themselves are nothing but the translation into concrete form of the concept of dddb.
(b) contracts (al-mu'dkada), such as marriage, divorce, emancipa- tion, slavery, rights of succession, etc." (Gardet- Anawati, 119).
Ibn Wahshiyya (or Abu Talib al-Zayyat) [q.v.], in Kitab al-Filaha al-nabatiyya, "the Book of Nabataean Agriculture" (cf. sup- porters of the Sufyanids, and being also the spot where the Companion of the Prophet Dihya b. Hawting, The first dynasty of Islam, the Umayyad caliphate AD 661-750, London 1986, 98). Haritha, and also by a number statements in the notices of individual Meccan MU'AKHAT — al-MU c ALLAKAT thi: otherings" at Medina between an Emigrant and ^nsarl, and has a list of over fifty pairs. ] and Yazld and various Bedouin chiefs from the tribes of western Arabia.
On the plumb-line of the figure is written thakkdla (cf. , xxxv, Al-Tighnari mentions another instrument called mizan al-kaf, and Ibn Wahshiyya (see below), one of brass called kqfar or kakar. Arab authors who give fuller descriptions of Arab instruments are the following: 1. It was also known as Miz- zat Kalb, having been in the Umayyad period a locality heavily settled by South Arabian, Kalb! Lemercier-Quelquejay et alii, eds., Passe turco-tatar, present souietique: Etudes offertes a Alexandre Bennigsen, Paris 1986, esp. This is confirmed partly by Ibn Ishak's statement that Muhammad [self was "brothered" with c Ali and his uncle mza with Zayd b.
The Lisdn thus retains the meaning relating to transactional relations in agriculture as being specific to the term mu'-dmala.
Khalifa al-Kalbi was reputedly buried (al-Harawi, Ziydrdt, 11/27). By Ayyubid and Mamluk times, however, it is again described as flourishing. He says "brothering" was made on the basis "of right (? The actual phrase is connected with Kur'an, IX, 60, which W. Watt has, however, shown to refer to gifts from the sadaka [q.o.] to two Bedouin chiefs on a previous occasion, the two incidents having been subsequently conflated by tendentious opponents of the Umayyads (see his Muhammad at Medina, Oxford 1956, 73-5, 348- 53; cf. Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Mahomet 2 , Paris 1969, 182-4). See also all the fikh books, in the sections on zakdt. The word mu'dmala designates in this author's writing the behaviour dictated by a body of moral rules (dddb; cf. According to these ethics, spiritual behaviour and material behaviour are governed by rules "established in terms of basic mate- rial elements" which are the same for both types of behaviour (Fr. This category of knowledge is treated with that of arithmetic ('Urn al-hisab wa 'l-mu'dmaldt; Ikhwan. According to the Ikhwan, the science of mu'dmaldl depends on the knowledge of others; it implies a pragmatic psychology. 505/1 111), the study of mu'dmaldl is contained in that of fikh. In this sense mu'dmala appears to be a credit agreed by a lender called tddjir or merchant (note that mu'dmala in this sense of the term is retained in the modern language). This custom, Schacht states, was practised in Medina and goes back to the time of Malik b. To sum up, already in this period, at least in the Hidjaz, the term mu'dmala extended beyond contracts of cultivation (muzdra'a) and designated a whole body of rental tran- sactions governing employer-employee relations. 255/869), the con- cept took on a psycho-social significance and took on a cultural colouring in the broad sense of the term. Keeping the quantitative aspect of this discipline, the Ikhwan al- Safa 3 were to categorise the mu'dmaldl into disciplinary (riyddiyya) sciences and moralising sciences ('Urn al- dddb). Its outer edge comes up to the level of the surface of the ring while its inner edge is a little higher. In the groove a thread is hung from the top of the gnomon with a ball-shaped weight. The words hayra c a and hari'-a (al-Djawhari, al-Firuzbadl) would appear to be vulgar forms of yard'. Another name for a small flute was gjuwdk, and this word also found a place with the Latins as the joch (Du Cange). le Tourneau, Fes avant le protectorat, Casablanca 1949, ). In 930/1524 a more serious challenge was offered by a later viceroy, Ahmad Pasha (metin), ii^ 5 Selcuklar tarihi, ed. The ring to be tested is first of all placed exactly horizontal with the ground by means of the level (fig. Inside the ring on its concave side, a circular gutter of potter's clay is built. In the side of the gnomon, a perpendicular rod, often with a cone-shaped top, Ibn Yunus (see below) cut out a groove which ended in a hemispherical cavity. In the contemporary Vocabulista in Arabico, it (yard ) agrees with fistula. Sedillot, treizieme siecle par Aboul Hhassan Ali de Maroc. The Tunisian sundial is discussed in King, A fourteenth-century Tunisian sundial for regulating the times oj Muslim prayer, in W. Levi-Provencal, Documents inedils d'hisloire almohade, Paris 1928, 70; cf. Gaudefroy-Demombynes, introduction to the translation of the Masilik al-absar of Ibn Fadl Allah al- c Umarf, Paris 1927, p. Mazwdr was in cons- tant use in Fas for the nakib [q.v.] of the principal Shanfian groups who lived in this capital (see R.