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Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. There would be no vertical force, but the declination would be increased everywhere. Considering the Earth as a uniformly magnetized sphere (w = i), the tangent of the declina- tion would everywhere be twice what it is at present. The Construction of new magnetic charts of the Earth by the French Bureau of Longitudes. de Bernardieres 1 has contributed a most interesting note to the Comptes Rendus, 121, p. The spirited enterprise of which this note gives the first published account is another indication of the remark- able interest that is being displayed at the present time on all sides in geomagnetism. — Red Sea, south coast of Asia, eastern coast of Africa, Madagascar and other islands, M. 1 Secretaire de la Commission des Cartes magne*tiques du Bureau des Longitudes. It is expected that they will carry on their work for about two years.Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. If this conductivity of space though small is appreciable, the induced forces are obtained in the following way : Let the Earth's poten- tial referred to its geographical axis be given by the expression (26) or (cos ^ cos sin ^ sin cos A) 4/ — •_/ _^__ ___^^__^__^_______^___^__ r a then the induced potential is given by X = /sin \ff sin (E cos \ Fsin \) = /sin ij/ sin Op cos (k — a). Such currents, it is easy to see, might produce effects similar to that of the aurora, but I must for the present postpone their discussion. After briefly noting this reawakening interest the author gives a short description of the methods and purposes of the project. The expedition sent on the ship "Manche" to Iceland last spring has returned with a large number of observations made at Cherbourg, in Scotland, the Shetland Islands, Iceland, Norway (as far north as Bossekop and Ham- merfest), in Denmark and in the North Sea. The fact that a sphere transversely magnetized may rotate in a medium of infinite conductivity without retardation appears surprising at first sight, but it may be pointed out, that a similar result has been obtained by Max- well for a magnetic pole moving parallel to a conducting sheet Digitized by Google ELECTRIC CURRENTS INDUCED BY ROTA TING MAGNETS 1 1 {Electricity and Magnetism Vol. The table shows that the retarding couple increases with decreasing conductivity to a maximum and then diminishes again. A vast number of observations have been accumulated, the twenty-four con- stants in Gauss' fundamental formula have been more accurately determined, and a number of minor phenomena observed and explained, but the subject is far from being exhausted. 94 1 1 42 1.940 0.0574 I0 a 54 Xio* 1.97 1 51 1.97 1 0.0292 103 54 X io« 1-997 05 1.997 0.0029 It appears that F vanishes both for an infinitely great and infinitely small conductivity ; that is to say there is no couple tending to retard the Earth's motion when either the conductivity or resistance is infinite. The explanation lies in the circumstance that the currents induced in a conductor of infinite conductivity are confined to an infinitely thin layer at the surface ; as the currents do not become infinitely great the total work done vanishes. This period of sixty years has seen progress in our knowledge of terrestrial magnetism, but without any epoch-making event. The numerical calculation gives at the maximum P= 2.1 18784, k = 2.42 x icr u . " Is not the Journal before us, then, to mark a new epoch in our knowl- edge of this subject? The maximum of i^may be obtained from the expression (27). The modern applications of electricity to practical affairs is not without its effect upon the subject of terrestrial magnetism. The mathematical conditions were quite different in the two cases, yet both led to a value of p = 2.12 apparently. The names of the editors, the laboratory, and university from which it comes all combine to promise excellent results. There is, therefore, one con- ductivity for which the two potentials are equal, and a first approximation showed that this conductivity was numerically equal to that which gives the maximum retarding couple. It enters, and enters under favorable auspices, a field not hitherto occupied by any scientific journal.

Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. If there is any magnetic yielding as there is a yielding in solids to steadily applied forces, the magnetic axis would be made to revolve slowly and steadily in a spiral curve round and towards the axis of rotation, the direction of rotation of the axis being opposite to that of the impressed rotation of the sphere, i. In whatever way the sphere was originally magnetized, the magnetic axis and the axis of rotation would ultimately tend to coincide. Die in dieser Abhandlung benutzten ruhigen Tage sind die vom Astro- nomer Royal ausgewahlten. Chree die Summe der Stundenabweichungen (ohne Riicksicht auf das Zeichen) und die Extreme, und letztere mit und ohne Elimination. The conductivity of mercury being about io"" 5 , it appears that both mechanical and magnetic reactions of electric currents induced in space are practically the same for any conductivity lying between infinity and one which is 100,000 times smaller than that of mercury. If Af K* is the moment of inertia of the sphere and • its angular velocity d and hence by the ordinary process of solution, if : Z = 3.42 X io rt . The Journal is not subsidized by any university or corpora- tion ; it will depend for its support upon those who have the advancement of Terrestrial Magnetism at heart. Houette, cap- tain of the frigate and in command of the station at Iceland ; M. As soon as the necessary instruments are forthcoming an eighth expedition will be sent to Terranova, which on its return will make observations in the Mediterranean Sea. s, units, the effects are practically the same as if the conductivity were infinitely great. ij As regards the magnitude of the retarding couple, we may easily calculate its effects. Nevertheless, at least 50-75 new subscriptions are needed to cover the probable total outlay for the year. The ratio of the horizontal forces of the induced and inducing potential is also given by ( 10) , while the ratio of the vertical forces is simply A- ! II88 24.24X10 0.9996 3i 23 0.8521 0.5206 10 5-4 Xio 9 1.722 8 10 1.703 2442 5x10 135 XI03 1. Of those so founded in the forties, several have maintained a series of almost uninterrupted observations to this day. But as the magnetic forces are proportional to e~ ivmt y it follows that and hence da (V a ? The ratio of potentials at the surface may also be written 1±-L *~ (12) where the argument of the function is fi(i i). ft io x6 k p a 2s=/sin a 0.1 O.54 0.0121 84° 27' 0.0012 0.0119 0.2 2.16 0.0437 79 18 0.0081 0.0428 0.3 4.86 0.0890 74 3i 0.0237 0.0857 O.4 8.64 0.1433 70 06 0.0486 0.1344 0.5 13.50 0.2076 69 06 0.0740 0.1933 0.6 19.44 0.2657 62 18 0.1232 0.2345 0.7 26.46 0.3292 58 52 0.1701 0.2825 0.8 34.56 0.3917 55 44 0.2207 0.3238 0.9 4374 0.4533 52 50 0.2736 0.3606 1.0 54.00 0.5123 50 12 0.3277 0.3932 2.0 21.6 Xio 0.9614 32 44 0.8082 0.5199 2. The Magnetic Union, formed in the third decade of the present century, chiefly owing to the researches of Gauss, caused the establishment in various parts of the world of magnetic observa- tories, founded and maintained by various governments.